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greasemonkey

Mark Pilgrim has given the Greasemonkey community Dive into Greasemonkey, the best reference imaginable. The stuff below might be slightly more up-to-date.


You can write your very own shiny user script with just a few steps:

1. Create the file

Open a new text file in your favorite editor and throw some javascript in there. Note that there are many good resources available if you're not sure exactly what javascript you need.

For example, you might create this simple script:

alert("Hello, world!");
2. Save the file

You can choose any name, but it has to end with .user.js.

3. Test the file

Drag the file onto Firefox (or open it any other way) and select "Install User Script..." from the Tools menu. Note that this option will be disabled if you forgot to name your file ending with ".user.js". Refresh the browser to see any changes to the current page.

4. Debug the file

Press the Edit button in the Manage Userscripts screen to edit a live copy of the script. When you save changes, you will be able to reload and see their effects immediately. You can also use the GM_log function to write output to the JavaScript Console.

5. (optional) Add metadata

By default, scripts will be installed with a name based on their filename, a namespace based on the URL they were downloaded from, and will be executed on every webpage. You can override these settings by adding metadata to your script.

This is done with special javascript comments, like so:

// ==UserScript==
// @name          Say Hello!
// @namespace     http://youngpup.net/userscripts
// @description	  Greets the world
// @include       http://google.com/*
// @include       http://www.google.com/*
// @include       http://maps.google.tld/*
// @exclude       http://gmail.google.com/*
// ==/UserScript==
// Notes:
//   * is a wildcard character
//   .tld is magic that matches all top-level domains (e.g. .com, .co.uk, .us, 
etc.)

alert("Hello, world!");

Here is a short reference of the available metadata tags:

Property Description Multiplicity Default
@name A friendly name for the script. 0-1 The script's filename without the extension.
@namespace A scope within which @name should be unique. 0-1 The domain of the script's file.
@description A, uhm, description. 0-1 none
@include A url to include the script with. There can be more than one. 0+ one, set to *
@exclude A url to explicitly exclude the script from. There can be more than one. 0+ none


Tips
API

Greasemonkey scripts are executed in an environment very much like regular DHTML scripts are. With a few exceptions, Greasemonkey scripts have access to the exact same DOM API that the scripts on the website do. See the Gecko DOM Reference for an introduction to this API.

As of Greasemonkey 0.6.4, however, user scripts now have their own JavaScript context and execute completely separately from the content document. This means that except by noticing changes the changes which they make to the DOM, content scripts can neither detect Greasemonkey scripts, nor interfere with them.

Sometimes, you will want to access the global variables in the content document. For example, maybe the content document defines a function which you want to call. In these cases, you can access the content document's global scope with the unsafeWindow variable. Just be aware that accessing the members of this variable means that content scripts can detect your script and potentially interfere with it if they choose.

Greasemonkey also defines several special APIs which are not available to content scripts.

GM_registerMenuCommand

Userscripts can call GM_registerMenuCommand(commandName, commandFunc, accelKey, accelModifiers, accessKey) to add a menu command to the tools > User Script Commands submenu. The first two arguments are required; the reamining ones are optional.

commandName
Name to display in the menu
commandFunc
Function to call
accelKey
A single character (e.g. 'g') or keycode that can trigger the command
accelKey
A string listing modifiers that must be pressed with the accelKey. If there's more than one, then they should be separated with spaces. For example, 'shift' or 'ctrl alt'. Available modifiers are: shift, alt, meta, control, and accel.
accessKey
A single character (e.g. 'g') that can be used to jump to the command when the menu is open. It should be a letter in commandName
Example calls:
GM_registerMenuCommand( "Hello world!", hello, "e", "control", "h" );
GM_registerMenuCommand( "Hello world! (again)", hello2, "e", "shift alt", "w" );
GM_registerMenuCommand( "Hello world (simple)", helloSimple );

GM_xmlhttpRequest

Userscripts can call GM_xmlhttpRequest(details) to make an xmlhttp request to other domains.

The details parameter is an object having the following fields: method, url, headers, onload, onreadystatechange, onerror, data. All fields are optional except method and url. The headers field is an object which should be the name-value pairs of the headers to send, for instance {"User-Agent":"Mozilla"}. The onload, onreadystatechange, and onerror parameters are callback functions which are called when the corresponding events occur.

Callback functions should accept a single object parameter having the following fields: responseText, status, statusText, readyState, and responseHeaders. The responseHeaders is the string representation of response headers returned by XMLHTTPRequest.getAllResponseHeaders().

Here's an example:

GM_xmlhttpRequest({
  method:"GET",
  url:"http://youngpup.net/",
  headers:{
    "User-Agent":"monkeyagent",
    "Accept":"text/monkey,text/xml",
    },
  onload:function(details) {
    alert([
      details.status,
      details.statusText,
      details.readyState,
      details.responseHeaders,
      details.responseText
    ].join("\n"))
  }
});

GM_setValue(name, value)

Allows user script authors to persist simple values locally. Strings, booleans, and integers are the only allowed datatypes. For example:

GM_setValue("foo", "bar");

GM_getValue(name, default)

Retrieve a value set with setValue. If the value is not found, default is returned instead. If default is not supplied, undefined is returned.

alert(GM_getValue("foo"));

GM_log(message, level)

Allows script authors simple access to logging informational messages in the JS Console. This can be helpful for debugging. Level is optional and defaults to 0. Valid values are: 0 - info, 1 - warning, 2 - error.

GM_log("Hello, World!")

GM_openInTab(url)

Opens the specified URL in a new tab.

GM_openInTab("http://greasemonkey.mozdev.org/")

GM_addStyle(css)

Adds a string of CSS to the document.

GM_addStyle("body { color:red; }");

unsafeWindow

A reference to the content document's javascript window object. This is where the content document's global variable and functions are defined.

// list all the variables in the content's global scope
for (var p in unsafeWindow) {
  GM_log(p + ": " + unsafeWindow[p] + "\n");
}

Note that accessing any variables in unsafeWindow yields control to the page's scripts. This means they can get acccess to the user script's source.

If you call browser APIs from this window, they might be redefined to mean something different than you expect. For example, a content script which wanted to trip up a Greasemonkey script could redefine unsafeWindow.document.getElementById to do nothing, or throw an error. This is one reason why you should not use unsafeWindow unless there is no other way to accomplish what you want to.

Also, content functions you call can walk back up the call stack to get any parameters you passed to higher-level calling functions. Consider this hypothetical example:

// DONT DO THIS.
function a(gmxhr) {
 // do something with gmxhr
 unsafeWindow.foo();
}

function b() {
  a(GM_xmlhttpRequest);
}

b();

Here, we pass a reference to GM_xmlhttpRequest to a user script function, which calls a content function. In this example, the content function foo could walk up the call stack to retrieve a reference to GM_xmlhttpRequest, which would be bad.

In general, it's probably best practice to avoid passing GM_* to any functions as parameters. In the future, there will be a better way to call content functions.

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